Git

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Git is a popular version control system made by Linus Torvalds.

Installation

Windows

Download Git for Windows

Linux

sudo apt install git git-lfs

Basic Usage

# Clone or download a repository
git clone <url> [<foldername>]
# cd into the cloned folder
cd <foldername>
# Note that some repos have submodules which will also need to be cloned
git submodule update --init --recursive

# Stage your changes
git add <my files>
# Or stage all files
# git add .

# Make a commit
git commit -m "My commit message"

# Push your changes to the repository
git push

# Pull the latest changes from the repository
# Equivalent to git fetch && git merge FETCH_HEAD
git pull

Branches

You should make branches per-feature.
This allows you to work on your feature from a static copy of the code repo.
You can also discard this branch if you decide the feature is no longer needed.
Once the feature has been fully developed, you should rebase the branch onto the head of master.
Then you can merge the branch to add the feature to master.

# Make a branch
git checkout -b my_feature

# Add and commit to this branch
git add .
git commit -m "My commit message"

# Push
git push --set-upstream origin my_feature

# Checkout a branch
git checkout my_branch

# Checkout a single file from another branch
git checkout my_branch -- other_file.txt

Pull Requests

See Are pull requests are part of Git?

Pull requests are a way to submit changes to repositories you do not manage.
First, you fork the repository to create a working-copy for yourself to develop on.
Once your changes are finished, you create a pull request asking the original repo to incorporate your changes.
It's easiest to just use the web interfaces of GitHub or GitLab for this.

To do this manually, see Git Book: Contributing to a project.

Migrating Repositories

How to migrate repositories to another Git server

git clone --mirror <original_repo>
cd <repo>

# Run the following lines only if you're using lfs
git lfs fetch --all
git lfs push --all <new_repo>

git push --all <new_repo>

Changing Remote URL

Reference
You will need to change the remote url if it is changed on the server. E.g. if you change the project name.

git remote set-url origin <new-url>

gitignore

.gitignore is used to ignore certain files to make sure they do not get accidentally pushed to the remote git repo.
You can find a collection of .gitignore files on Github's gitignore repo.
Or you can create a custom .gitignore file at gitignore.io.

gitattributes

.gitattributes are used to give attributes to paths.
They can be used to assign programming languages to filenames.
They are also used to identify which files should be stored in the lfs.
Here is an example to store video and images in the lfs.

## Video
*.mp4 filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.mov filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.flv filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text

## Pictures
*.png filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.jpg filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.jpeg filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text

## Binary files
*.bin filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text
*.7z filter=lfs diff=lfs merge=lfs -text

Clean

Atlassian Reference
Use git clean to delete untracked files.
Add -x to also delete gitignore'd files.

# Force delete any untracked files and directories
git clean -fd

Git Large File Storage (LFS)

Reference