# Algorithms

Algorithms

## Sorting

Given: compare(a,b) to compare 2 numbers. Goal: Sort a list of numbers from smallest to largest.

### $O(n^{2})$ Algorithms

#### Insertion Sort

Basic Idea:

• Maintain a subarray which is always sorted

Algorithm:

• Grab a number from the unsorted portion and insert it into the sorted portion
• Repeat until no more numbers are in the unsorted subarray

#### Selection Sort

Basic Idea:

• Maintain a subarray which is always sorted.
• Every number in the sorted subarray will be smaller than the smallest number in the unsorted subarray.

Algorithm:

• Find the smallest number in the unsorted portion and insert it into the sorted portion
• Repeat until no more numbers are in the unsorted subarray.

#### Quicksort

Basic Idea:

• Divide an conquer.
• Very fast. Average case O(nlogn).

Algorithm:

## Selection

Given: compare(a,b) to compare 2 numbers. A number k. Goal: Return the k'th largest number.

### Median finding

• See CLRS
• Idea: Reinterpret your data as a 2D array of size 5 x (n/5)
• Find the median of each column of 5 elements
• Sort the columns by their medians
• Now you can eliminate the upper left (1/4) of elements and the lower right (1/4) of elements
• Recursively iterate on the remaining (1/2) of elements
• Each iteration takes O(n). Consecutive iterations are on n/2 data so we have $O(n)+O(n/2)+...=O(n)$ • Worst Case $O(n)$ ### Quickselect

• Worst Case $O(n^{2})$ • Average Case $O(n)$ Notes
• Using a good $O(n)$ pivot finding algorithm (See finding the median in O(n)) will reduce the worst case to $O(n)$ 