Data Hoarding

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How to do data hoarding.

My personal setup is:

  • 5x USB hard drives
  • Veracrypt full-disk encryption on each drive
  • SnapRAID with 3 data drives and 2 parities.
  • Mergerfs on the data drives.
  • SFTP to mount or transfer files.
  • Due to SnapRAID not being real-time, I don't keep data for programs such as MariaDB or GitLab on the array. They're on a separate drive and rsync'd to the array nightly.


  • In general, get WD easystore disks from Best Buy when they're on sale.
    • $15 per TB is great pricing for 8TB+ drives. When on sale, 12TB runs $180 and 14TB runs $200. You can also find $250 14TB bare drives on eBay.
    • WD owns Hitachi Global Storage Technologies (HGST). All new HGST drives are WD drives.
  • Avoid SMR drives which have worse performance and reliability. Specifically, their write performance is incredibly bad so you'll end up taking multiple days to rebuild parity drives in raid arrays.
  • Avoid lower-end Seagate drives (e.g. rosewood).

HDD Testing

You should test all hard drives, both new and old, before adding them to your array.


I mainly use VeraCrypt for full disk encryption of every individual disk.

  • VeraCrypt for full-disk, partition, or container based encryption.
  • Rclone for file-based encryption
  • Cryptomator is also another good choice for local file-based encryption.

See for more options.


It is inevitable that one of your drives will eventually fail.
In general, I strongly recommend against hardware Raid and intel RST Raid, despite them being the most popular.
When raid cards or motherboards fail, your data becomes difficult to recover.
I personally only use SnapRAID.


Union File Systems


  • Nextcloud allows you to add an SFTP link as an external storage.
    • Alternatively, you can also move the nextcloud directory to your array but then it'll be slightly more difficult to access using other methods.

Closed-source Windows Apps

Would not recommend creating a Windows NAS. If you want to though, most of the above also runs on Windows. Note: I have not tried the applications below.

Here is a list of popular closed-source apps:

More Resources